Refractive stoma is an eye surgery that includes a wide variety of procedures aimed at changing the refraction of the eye and achieving emmetropia for the patient.

We use different techniques such as modifying or carving the cornea, implanting phakic lenses or replacing the lens.

We use different techniques such as corneal modification or cutting, phakic lens implantation or lens replacement.


Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism are what we know as refractive and visual defects, the person who suffers will have difficulties to see at different distances, in addition to not being able to see clear objects.


Depending on the pathology of each patient and the technique that best suits their needs, the surgery that best suits each patient will be considered.


It is a visual defect that causes that the sufferer does not get good distance vision . This usually happens because the size of the eyeball is larger than normal, so that the image is projected before reaching the retina, which means that, depending on the distance at which the objects are, they may be blurred or out of focus.

It is a very common visual defect. Around 25% of the population suffers from it. It usually develops between 8 and 12 years old, and usually increases progressively (because the eyeball continues to increase in size) until it stabilises, at approximately 20 years old. This defect can be treated both with the use of glasses and contact lenses and surgically, meaning the use of glasses and lenses is no longer required.

At the Martínez de Carneros Ophthalmology Clinic we have specialised departments to correct these visual defects through myopia microsurgery, the most common treatments being 100% LASER treatment using FEMTOLASIK technique, PRK or the implantation of ICL lenses, depending on the needs of each patient.


Hyperopia is a visual defect which means the affected person does not see well up close. In most cases hyperopia is a result of the eyeball being smaller than normal, so the image is projected at a point posterior to the retina.

Hyperopia affects between 10 and 15% of the population. It develops during childhood and often generates strabismus, because the muscle that controls the eyeball does not work correctly when trying to compensate the focus. Unlike other visual defects, hyperopic patients can compensate for the focus through increased visual effort, which usually generates visual fatigue due to exertion. At approximately 40 years old, changing focus becomes progressively more difficult, so the defect tends to get worse.

Like myopia, hyperopia can be treated with glasses and contact lenses as well as with refractive surgery, both laser and ICL lens implantation, according to the needs of each patient.


Astigmatism is a defect that normally occurs in the cornea, and causes the patient not to see well either from far or near, in addition to, sometimes, seeing distorted images.

cirugía refractiva Madrid

This defect is characterised by the uncommon shape of the cornea:

While a normal cornea has a spherical shape, corneas with astigmatism have a more oval shape. This causes the images to be projected in different points of the retina.

It is a defect that more than 55% of the population suffers from, and can be associated with other refractive errors.

Since the shape of the cornea does not usually change with growth, astigmatism is usually apparent from birth. Like hyperopia, it can be compensated by focusing the lens, which usually causes eyestrain and headaches.

It can be corrected through the use of glasses or contact lenses, as well as laser surgery and implantation of toric ICL lenses.



Femtolasik refractive surgery: consists of lifting the superficial corneal layer or flap with a laser called Femtosecond, this laser makes a disruption of the cells that allows the flap to be lifted safely and guarantees that it has the precise thickness. Next, we proceed to carve the internal area of ​​the cornea with the necessary graduation in each patient with the EXCIMER laser.

PRK Refractive Surgery: consists of correcting the graduation by applying a single laser on the surface of the cornea. Although this intervention is somewhat uncomfortable in the postoperative period, it enjoys great reliability and is recommended mainly in patients with low graduation or sportsmen.


It consists of placing an intraocular lens in front of the lens and behind the iris. This lens provides excellent visual quality, independently of the previous prescription of the patient, and a definitive solution, although reversible. For instance, if there was a change in the refraction of the patient, in the future they would require a lens replacement.


The budget of the same ones will vary in function of each case, since there are surgeries adapted for each client.